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Staff of the Permanent Mission to the United Nations of the Kingdom of Bhu- tan kindly provided maps, photographs, and documentary infor- mation on Bhutan. Shaw for lending his expertise on Nepal and Bhutan in serving as reader of the completed manuscript. Staff of the Royal Nepalese Embassy in Washington provided photographs, statistical data, and the clarification of information.area handbook series Nepal and Bhutan country studies 7 o Nepal and Bhutan country studies Federal Research Division Library of Congress Edited by Andrea Matles Savada Research Completed September 1991 On the cover: Mountains and monasteries are typical of both Nepal and Bhutan. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Nepal and Bhutan : country studies / Federal Research Division, Library of Congress ; edited by Andrea Matles Savada. Wolpert for editing the body of the book; Catherine Schwartzstein for prepublication editorial review; Joan C. Finally, the authors acknowledge the generosity of the individuals and the public and private agencies who allowed their photographs to be used in this study. Blood for preparing the topography and drainage maps; Barbara Harrison and Beverly J . Neale and Linda Peterson of the Printing and Processing Section, Library of Con- gress, for phototypesetting, under the direction of Peggy Pixley.HD Porn tube lets you view ten thousands of free xxx hot video clips.So if you like watching at porn vids that have a very good quality, this regularly updated sex tube here is exactly what you were searching for!

Nepal: Historical Setting 1 James Heitzman ANCIENT NEPAL, ca. Bhutan: Chronology of Important Events 241 Bhutan: Country Profile 245 Chapter 6. Worden HISTORICAL SETTING 253 Origins and Early Settlement, A. 600-1600 253 Theocratic Government, 1616-1907 256 Establishment of the Hereditary Monarchy, 1907 .... 263 Modernization under Jigme Dorji, 1952-72 263 Entering the Outside World, 1972-86 266 THE SOCIETY AND ITS ENVIRONMENT 266 Geography 266 Population 272 Social System 276 Religious Tradition 281 x Education 284 Health 287 THE ECONOMY 289 The Economic Context 289 Role of the Government 290 Foreign Economic Relations 295 Agriculture 298 Forestry 301 Industry, Mining, Energy, and Commerce 303 Labor Force 306 Transportation and Communications 306 Tourism 312 GOVERNMENT AND POLITICS 313 The Monarchy 313 Structure of the Government 315 Political Developments 323 The Media 328 Foreign Relations 328 NATIONAL SECURITY 335 Strategic Location 335 Armed Forces 336 Paramilitary 339 Police Force 340 Legal System 341 Appendix.

Merrill reviewed the maps and geography and telecommunications sections; Ly Burnham reviewed sections on demography; Alberta J.

Cabitto prepared the layout and graph- ics; Marilyn Majeska supervised editing and managed production; Andrea Merrill provided invaluable assistance in preparing the ta- bles; Timothy L.

C 20402 Foreword This volume is one in a continuing series of books prepared by the Federal Research Division of the Library of Congress under the Country Studies/ Area Handbook Program sponsored by the Department of the Army.

vi Contents Page Foreword iii Acknowledgments v Preface xiii Introduction , XV Table A. 700 4 Early Influences on Nepal 4 The Early Kingdom of the Licchavis, 400-750 6 MEDIEVAL NEPAL, 750-1750 9 Transition to the Medieval Kingdom, 750-1000 9 The Malla Kings 10 The Three Kingdoms 12 THE MAKING OF MODERN NEPAL 15 The Expansion of Gorkha 15 The Struggle for Power at Court 18 The Enclosing of Nepal 20 Infighting among Aristocratic Factions 23 RANA RULE 26 The Kot Massacre 26 The Dictatorship of Jang Bahadur 27 The Rana Oligarchy 32 The Growth of Political Parties 36 The Return of the King 38 The Democratic Experiment 41 The Panchayat System under King Mahendra 44 Modernization under King Birendra 48 Chapter 2. Shrestha GEOGRAPHY 56 The Land 56 vii Climate 60 The River System 62 POPULATION 65 Population Structure and Settlement Patterns 65 Urbanization 67 Migration 69 Population Planning 72 Caste and Ethnicity 74 SOCIAL SYSTEM AND VALUES 81 Rural Society and Kinship 83 Women's Status and Role in Society 86 Social Classes and Stratification 87 RELIGION 88 Religion and Society 88 Hinduism 90 Buddhism 91 EDUCATION 92 Education under Rana Rule 92 Education since 1951 94 HEALTH 98 Diseases and Disease Control 98 Health-Care Facilities 100 Chapter 3. Shukla ECONOMIC SETTING 107 ROLE OF GOVERNMENT 108 The Five- Year Plans 108 Other Development Programs 112 BUDGETING PROCESS 113 Regular and Development Budget 113 Taxation 113 MONEY AND BANKING 114 FOREIGN TRADE 116 BALANCE OF PAYMENTS 118 FOREIGN AID 119 LABOR 121 AGRICULTURE 122 LAND REFORM 124 FORESTS 125 INDUSTRY 126 Manufacturing 127 Private Industry 127 Vlll Public Companies 128 Minerals 128 ENERGY 129 TRANSPORTATION 133 Roads 133 Railroads 135 Ropeways 136 Civil Aviation 136 Other Modes of Transportation 137 COMMUNICATIONS 137 TOURISM 138 PROBLEMS AND PROSPECTS 139 Chapter 4. 143 Enayetur Rahim CONSTITUTIONAL DEVELOPMENT 146 The Rana System 146 The Interim Constitution, 1951 147 The Royal Constitution of 1959 148 The Panchayat Constitution, 1962 149 Constitutional Amendments 150 The Referendum of 1980 150 The Constitution of 1990 152 Other Features of the Constitution 154 The Executive 154 The Legislature 155 The Judiciary 157 The Civil Service 159 The Administrative System 159 POLITICAL DYNAMICS 161 The Panchayat System 161 Political Parties 166 Elections 171 THE MEDIA 176 FOREIGN POLICY 179 Relations with India 180 Relations with Other South Asian Nations 183 Relations with China 184 Relations with the United States 187 Relations with Britain 189 Relations with the Soviet Union 189 Relations with Other Countries 190 International and Regional Organizations 190 IX Chapter 5. Makeig ARMED FORCES AND SOCIETY 198 Origins of the Legendary Gurkha 198 From the Anglo-Nepalese War to World War II .... The authors seek to provide a basic understanding of the observed society, striving for a dynamic rather than a static portrayal.